The definition of Egypt’s modern history has varied in accordance to different definitions of Modernity. Some scholars date it as far back as 1517 with the Ottomans’ defeat of the Mamlūks in 1516–17. However, most scholars have agreed that Modern history of Egypt starts with Muhammad Ali’s rule and his launching of Egypt’s modernization project that involved building a new army and suggesting a new map for Egypt.
In 1882, the Khedivate of Egypt became part of the British sphere of influence in the region, a situation that conflicted with its position as an autonomous vassal state of the Ottoman Empire. The country became a British protectorate in 1914 and achieved independence in 1922.
Gamal Abdel Nasser established a one party state, known as the Republic of Egypt, following the 1952 Egyptian revolution. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.
As of March 2011, the country is under interim military rule, has a democratically elected government although the electoral process is extremely complicated in Egypt, Nominations have been called for the Presidential election but the earliest they will finish will be in May 2012.