Egypt has a long and fascinating history. The civilization of ancient Egypt lasted some 3000 – 4000 years, longer than any other civilization in world history. At its peak it was remarkable for it cultural, religious and economic achievements. After the Roman invasion in the first century AD Egypt has been conquered many times, each new culture adding to the rich tapestry that is modern Egypt. Each new conqueror has also added to the fabric of the country, especially in Cairo, where many buildings of previous periods are still there for visitors to enjoy.
In regards to ancient Egypt, in 250 BC, the Greek King Ptolemy II ordered the Egyptian priest Manethon to write a history of the country. In it, Manethon lists the Pharaohs who ruled Egypt, grouping them into dynasties and delineating ancient Egyptian history into periods. Later historians continued to use this first nomenclature, dividing the history of ancient Egypt into three great kingdoms (Old, Middle and New) with three intermediary periods. We still use this system today.